A report in Samoa says more work is needed to achieve gender equality, with men dominating the powerful positions available, including matai and village titles.
The survey report reveals 93 percent of matai title holders are men.
That means 16,583 men are matais and 1,228 women are in the same position.
Men hold more than 2 thousand village chief titles, compared to just 168 women, and just under 9,500 men hold Tulafale or oratory titles, compared to 330 women.
The Minister for Women and Social Development, Tolofuaivalelei Falemoe Lei'ataua, says much work is needed to achieve gender equality in terms of leadership and decision making both at the local and national levels.
He says women's perspectives on political participation and leadership are critical to supporting programme delivery and development, for the empowerment of women.