Our Changing World
Thursday 8 March 2012, with Alison Ballance, Ruth Beran & Veronika Meduna
9:06 pm Thursday 5 December: Our Changing World
Hauturu-Little Barrier Island, in the Hauraki Gulf, was New Zealand’s first nature reserve and it’s a real island treasure. Alison Ballance joins rangers Richard Walle and Leigh Joyce on a walk to find out how the wildlife is faring since kiore or Pacific rats were eradicated 9 years ago.
Almost half of the world’s population is reliant on fish for their dietary protein, but 90% of all commercial fish stocks are classed as fully exploited or over-exploited. In this preview of an upcoming Royal Society of New Zealand 10x10 lecture, University of Canterbury’s Michael Plank explains how mathematical modelling could provide the solution, with a new approach to fishing.
Pulitzer Prize-winning science journalist turned science writer and University of Wisconsin journalism professor Deborah Blum was in New Zealand last week, and Alison Ballance caught up with her to hear about her career and the importance of good science communication.
Throughout Northland, ancient logs of kauri lie buried in bogs. While swamp kauri is a precious resource for artisan furniture makers, scientists are also finding that kauri stumps are a treasure trove of information about past environmental conditions and climate history. Veronika Meduna meets the team behind a New Zealand-German collaboration that uses swamp kauri to reconstruct past periods of abrupt climate change.
On This Programme
Parasites in Coastal Marine Ecosystems
Robert Poulin, Anja Studer and Colin MacLeod at low tide at their lower Portobello Bay study site, and various snails that are the host for the first stage of a trematode flatworm parasite (images: A. Ballance)
This week is Seaweek, and there are lots of marine-themed activities happening around the country. To mark the week we have our very own salty tale, set in lower Portobello Bay on the Otago Peninsula. This tidal harbour shore doesn’t look like much when do you drive past, but it’s an important field laboratory for a University of Otago team interested in the role of parasites in coastal ecosystems.
The Zoology Department’s Robert Poulin heads the Evolutionary and Ecological Parasitology Group, and he was awarded the 2011 Hutton Medal for excellence in animal sciences. On a wet windy day Alison Ballance joined Robert, PhD student Colin MacLeod and postdoctoral research fellow Anja Studer to find out more the trematode or flatworm parasites that first infect molluscs such as mud snails, then move onto cockles and amphipods, before finally moving onto bird hosts such as stilts.
A pile of rubble provides new habitat for pioneering native plants in Landcare Research's display at the Ellerslie International Flower Show in Hagley Park this week. At left, ecologist Colin Meurk takes a break in the sanctuary of the small park he designed to demonstrate how Christchurch's inner city could be rebuilt. (images: V Meduna)
Christchurch residents want a greener inner city, a view that is reflected in the city council’s draft central city plan. Street trees, rainwater and roof-top gardens and a network of neighbourhood parks are all among the proposed developments as the city rebuilds after last year’s earthquake.
Landcare Research ecologist Colin Meurk sees the recovery period as an opportunity to bring nature back into the urban landscape. His design for Landcare Research’s exhibit at the Ellerslie International Flower Show, which opened this week, is inspired by the concept of pocket parks, small inner-city sanctuaries for both wildlife and people. The miniature park features a shop with a roof-top garden and living walls, a wetland, rain gardens and overflow swales that filter water. In an ecological succession from lawns to forest trees, more than 150 indigenous plant species, many of which are endemic to the Canterbury region, are included in the display.
Clouds and Climate Change
NASA Terra Satellite image of cloud pattern over sea (left), and high and low altitude clouds are clearly captured in this satellite image (right). (Images: NASA and MRSI/JPL/Davies)
One of the big unanswered questions for climate scientists is what role clouds might play in mitigating the effects of global warming. Now, new research out of Auckland University may hint at a possible cooling mechanism at work. Professor Roger Davies and BSc Honours student Matthew Molloy analysed ten years’ worth of data from the NASA Terra satellite and found an overall trend of decreasing cloud height; essentially fewer clouds at greater heights. On average, cloud height in this period declined around the planet by 1 percent, or 30-40 metres, with most of the reduction occurring at very high altitudes. Lower cloud height should allow the planet to cool space more efficiently, and possibly slow down global warming. Professor Davies published his and Matthew’s research in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. Justin Gregory asked him if this research means we now know more about clouds and climate change.
A Green Roof with an Otago Native Plants Theme
Mark Mason, Hans Pietsch and Janice Lord in the roof garden on top of the William James Building (image: A. Ballance)
When the University of Otago was constructing the William James Building, which houses the Psychology Department, they decided to build to Environmentally Sustainable Design principles. The result was a 5-Star Green Star building rating. Although a green roof was not a requirement, staff in the building were keen on the idea, so the Building Services team approached the Botany Department for help, and botanist Janice Lord rose to the challenge of choosing some suitable Otago native plants and developing a planting plan. To find out how the 2-year old garden is getting on Alison Ballance heads to the ‘secret rooftop garden’ in the company of Janice, the university’s Energy Manager Hans Pietsch, and Energy Coordinator Mark Mason. She finds that the garden is filtering and collecting a quarter of a million litres of water each year, which is used to flush the building’s toilets, and that it is an ideal research site for studying weed invasion.
Winner of Pathology Media Award
Congratulations to Ruth Beran on winning a Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia 2012 media award for excellence in journalism relating to pathology. In her winning story Christchurch pathologist Stephen Brennan explains how his work on fibrinogen helped solve the genetic mystery of a man's blood clots.
Leonard Cockayne Memorial Lectures
The 2012 Leonard Cockayne Memorial Lecture kicked off its nation-wide tour this week. The speaker this year is Kevin Gould from Victoria University, who featured on Our Changing World a few weeks ago talking about coloured leaves. The topic of his lecture is Ever green but seeing red? Deciphering the palette of New Zealand’s flora. You can find details of the lecture venues and dates here.
Brain Awareness Week (March 12 to 18) is a global campaign to increase public knowledge about brain research as well as the potential for improving the long-term health of the brain through lifestyle changes and risk-reduction strategies. The Neurological Foundation of New Zealand has organised events and lectures throughout the country. Next week, Our Changing World will feature an interview with Anne La Flamme, an immunologist at Victoria University who is investigating new approaches to treating Multiple Sclerosis.
Square Kilometre Array
The Australia-New Zealand bid to host the SKA, a $2.7 billion radio telescope project, has been dealt a “crippling blow”, as reported by the Sydney Morning Herald and Nature. The SKA Site Advisory Committee has narrowly favoured South Africa in its recommendation to the board. The radio telescope will be made up of some 3000 dishes and will try to answer big questions about the early Universe, such as how the first elements heavier than helium formed and how the first galaxies coalesced. The board is expected to make its final decision on who will host the SKA by early April.
Apart from the interview about Multiple Sclerosis treatments, we find out about the ecology of Southland’s Waituna lagoon in the first of 3-part series on water issues in shallow lakes, and we join a fossil dig in Central Otago.
Audio from Thursday 8 March 2012
Not all audio is available due to copyright restrictions.
Parasites in Coastal Marine Ecosystems ( 15′ 03″ )
21:06 Flatworm parasites that use many common birds and crustaceans as hosts play an important role in how coastal ecosystems function
Greening the Rubble ( 12′ 59″ )
21:20 Landcare Research ecologist Colin Meurk discusses ideas for the rebuilding and replanting of Christchurch
Clouds and Climate Change ( 11′ 04″ )
21:34 Ten years of data from NASA's Terra satellite has revealed a trend in lowering cloud height
Roof Garden with Otago Native Plants ( 13′ 07″ )
21:46 A roof garden planted with Otago natives is the crowning glory of an energy efficient sustainable building
Southern Right Whale ( 25″ )
21:55 The answer to last week's mystery sound is southern right whale. These were recorded at the Auckland Islands.