Our Changing World
Thursday 26 April 2012, with Alison Ballance, Ruth Beran & Veronika Meduna
9:06 pm Thursday 20 June: Our Changing World
In a world first, a New Zealand vision scientist has discovered that playing Tetris under controlled conditions may be a cure for lazy eye in both children and adults. While some might query whether a video-game played close up is good for eyesight, Ben Thompson from the University of Auckland has proven otherwise, with the popular tile-matching game helping to train both eyes to work together. Lisa Thompson spoke with Ben and trial participant Jane Brock, who is seeing improvements in her vision first-hand.
At GNS, ion beams are being used to force atoms into solid materials and change their properties, for example making them harder, or more compatible with the human body. Ruth Beran meets John Futter to see some of the projects he is working on.
Since kaka were introduced to the fenced sanctuary Zealandia in 2002 they have grown in numbers to more than 200, and have become a regular sight in parks and gardens in central Wellington. Kerry Charles has just completed her Masters degree at Victoria University, investigating the damage kaka are inflicting on some urban trees, and Alison Ballance joins her in the Botanic Gardens to find out more.
Dillon Mayhew from Victoria University explains how the mathematics of codes and ciphers allows us to transmit volumes of information accurately and securely electronically around the world.
On This Programme
Computer Game for Depression
Some of the characters in the computer game SPARX
Depression affects at least a fifth of young people by the age of 18, but many of those teenagers don't receive treatment. To combat this, a team - lead by University of Auckland psychiatrist Sally Merry - developed the computer game SPARX, which stands for Smart Positive Active Realistic X-factor thoughts.
Using techniques from cognitive behavioural therapy, SPARX is an interactive 3D fantasy game which takes players on a journey through seven different levels. Participants learn behaviours that are known to protect against depression over a four to seven week period.
The results of a study if 187 adolescents aged between 12 and 19 has been published in the British Medical Journal. The study found that SPARX was as effective as face-to-face treatment in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety by at least a third.
Ruth Beran is shown how to play the game with Sally Merry and postdoctoral fellow Karolina Stasiak. Game developer Maru Nihoniho from Metia Interactive also explains how she created the interface for SPARX.
From left to right: Maru Nihoniho; Sally Merry; and Karolina Stasiak
The Brain and Fertility
The University of Otago’s highest research honour, the Distinguished Research Medal, was recently presented to neuroendocrinologist Allan Herbison, for his work into the brain’s master control of ovulation and other aspects of reproduction. Professor Herbison, who is in the Department of Physiology, uses transgenic mouse models to understand the properties and functioning of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and the kisspeptin molecule, which together are responsible for the initiation of puberty and the maintenance of fertility.
Alison Ballance catches up with Allan Herbison, who’s in the Centre for Neuroendocrinology
Last week, the New Zealand Association of Scientists held a conference to discuss the growing concerns about the future of early-career scientists in New Zealand. The meeting was partly prompted by an open letter, written by University of Canterbury ecologist Melanie Massaro last year, in which she highlighted the lack of post-doctoral opportunities in science. More than 500 scientists signed the letter and joined the call for action over the lack of funding for post-doctoral fellowships and the mismatch between the needs of emerging scientists and the design of the Rutherford Discovery Fellowships. In his opening address at the conference, NZAS president Shaun Hendy recalled how he returned to New Zealand with the help of a Science and Technology Post-doctoral Fellowship, which has seen been disestablished. Acknowledging the gap between the number of postgraduate science students New Zealand produces each year and the number of post-doctoral positions, he said "the key to future economic growth lies in the skills and abilities of the current and future cohorts of emerging scientists ... Whether their futures lie in industry, academia, or the Crown Research Institutes, we must ensure that emerging scientists have the opportunities and resources to establish their careers."
Just a few days before the conference, the Government announced the results of its review of the Rutherford Discovery Fellowships and the chief science advisor at the Ministry of Science and Innovation, Prue Williams, outlined the main changes at the NZAS conference.
Bioblitz - Auckland 2012
Slime moulds photographed by Clive Shirley. The three species shown here were among 20 new records for the Totara Park-Botanic Gardens area (images: hiddenforest.co.nz)
Manurewa’s Botanic Gardens was home to this year’s BioBlitz in Auckland. Conceived as a twenty-four hour survey, BioBlitz 2012 was run by Landcare Research and brought together scientists, students and the public to record all the biodiversity within a set urban area. They’ve been held in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch over the last eight years, and the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society recently held a weekend-long Bioblitz on the Denniston Plateau. At the 2012 Basecamp in the Gardens a large tent housed various displays celebrating New Zealand’s biodiversity, and a popular one was a large collection of slime moulds. Justin Gregory went along to find out about these unheralded members of our natural environment, and began by chatting to the man behind the blitz, Peter Buchanan from Landcare Research.
He also spoke with electrician and slime mould enthusiast Clive Shirley, who has a web site called the Hidden Forest, which contains close-up photographs of many small secretive forest plants, including slime moulds.
Dark Sky, an exhibition exploring how photography has been used to capture the skies, opens at the Adam Art Gallery this week. Moving between science, art and commerce, the show brings together a range of images and artworks from 1874 to the present, from digital prints sent from space to large-scale contemporary installations, made by artists, astronomers, professional photographers, and unmanned spacecraft. The exhibition is timed to coincide with the second and last Transit of Venus that will take place this century on 6 June. The accompanying programme of public lectures brings scientists, artists, historians and writers together to respond to the occasion. At noon on Wednesday, 2 May, artist Simon Ingram and astronomer/physicist Melanie Johnston-Hollitt discuss Ingram’s radio astronomy installation.
Our Changing World will cover the Transit of Venus and broadcast from Tolaga Bay and Gisborne.
Nutrients and sea lettuce or Ulva, part 4 of the BBC Discovery series Global Body and the hunt for new viruses.
Audio from Thursday 26 April 2012
Not all audio is available due to copyright restrictions.
Computer Game for Depression ( 12′ 53″ )
21:06 University of Auckland researchers have developed SPARX, a computer game to help young people beat depression
Brain and Fertility ( 12′ 43″ )
21:20 Allan Herbison explains how the brain controls fertility and how particular neurons and kisspeptin initiate puberty
Emerging Scientists ( 18′ 36″ )
21:34 A NZAS conference discusses growing concerns about the role of emerging scientists in New Zealand
Auckland Bioblitz ( 11′ 28″ )
21:46 A highlight of the recent 24-hour Bioblitz survey held at Auckland's Botanic Garden was a large collection of slime moulds