New research suggests most people would prefer to finance future infrastructure with a user-pays system or public-private partnership.
The research, commissioned by the New Zealand Council for Infrastructure Development, involved focus groups and a survey of more than 500 people.
It found that about 40% of those surveyed thought a user-pays model was the best way to pay for roads, public transport, ports and utlitities.
About 35% opted for public-private partnerships. Only 10% supported further public borrowing, with just 8% backing tax increases.