New disciplinary rules are to be trialed during this year's Super Rugby competition.
SANZAR chief executive Greg Peters says the changes follow a cross-country working group involving representatives from New Zealand, Australia and South Africa.
The changes include the referee now being able to refer a matter to the citing commissioner to investigate if he believes an act of foul play has occurred but isn't sure if it warrants a sending-off or he's unsure of the identity of a player.
The referee may also refer an incident to the citing commissioner if a player makes a complaint to him about foul play.
The citing commissioner can also now issue an off-field yellow card if he observes a serious act of foul play that is close to but not quite a red card.
Judicial hearings will now be held by videoconference or teleconference with 'in-person' hearings only taking place in exceptional circumstances.