The former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega has gone on trial in Paris for money-laundering.
Now believed to be 76, the man who ruled Panama from 1981 to 1989 was extradited from the United States in April after two decades in prison for drug trafficking.
A French court sentenced him in his absence to 10 years in 1999.
France agreed to give him a new trial if he was extradited from the US.
The trial is due to last three days. However, the verdict is not expected to be announced for several months, AFP news agency reports.