The American credited with inventing the teleprompter, Hubert Schlafly, has died at the age of 91.
Hubert J Schlafly Jr was working at 20th Century Fox when he built a device to help film stars remember their lines.
The BBC reports he changed showbusiness forever, by inserting a motorised scroll of paper inside a suitcase and placing the suitcase next to a camera.
This prototype teleprompter made its debut in 1950 on the set of a US soap opera. Printed on the paper were the lines actors had had difficulty remembering.
Soon the device was adopted by politicians - in 1952 it was used at the Republican Party convention by former president Herbert Hoover.
Teleprompters have been the loyal servants of every US president since.