South Africans have been voting in local elections after one of the most bitter campaigns in years.
Some 23 million people are registered to vote. Results are expected on Thursday or Friday.
Delivery of basic services like water, housing and jobs have been among the issues dominating campaigning.
The main opposition party, the Democratic Alliance, says services are not being delivered because of corruption by ANC councillors.
Long queues were seen in the most hotly contested areas, such as Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The African National Congress controls all nine provinces except the Western Cape.
Analysts say the ANC is facing its strongest opposition since the end of apartheid in 1994.
Last week, President Jacob Zuma warned his countrymen that their ancestors would never forgive them if they vote against the ANC, which led the fight against white minority rule.