Israel is to give registered organ donors priority when it comes to receiving a transplant themselves.
It wants to boost the low number of people prepared to donate their organs.
Writing in the medical journal, The Lancet, Professor Jacob Lavee describes Israel's organ donation statistics as "grim". Only one in 10 adults in Israel carries a donor card.
But some medical experts say it's a dangerous path to follow.
The head of ethics at the British Medical Association, Dr Vivienne Nathanson, is worried that people who most need organ transplants might not get them under this scheme.
Preparations for the new policy in Israel will start in the new year with a publicity campaign.
The BBC reports the new arrangements will come into force in January 2011.