NATO has failed to get a commitment from Russia for more help in the battle against the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Russia was asked to provide helicopters and training to the Afghan air force, which the organisation says is in Russia's security interests.
But after a visit to Moscow, NATO secretary-general Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he had not had a positive response.
The visit was the first by a NATO chief since relations chilled after last year's Russian-Georgian war.
The expansion of NATO remains a sensitive issue between the two sides.