Human rights researchers at Yale University say the international community has to pressure Indonesia to end its mistreatment of Papuans.
The university's Lowenstein Human Rights Clinic says Jakarta has committed crimes against humanity in Papua and may be guilty of genocide.
Its report says over the four decades that Indonesia has controlled the province, Papuans have suffered persistent abuses.
One of the researchers, Liz Brundige, says Indonesia has to address the abuses, and international law obliges other countries to ensure this happens.
"While there isn't a convention such as the genocide convention that includes positive obligations on the international community to prevent and punish the crime of genocide, however under customary international law there are also positive obligations on the international community to prevent and to punish and to express extraordinary concern when crimes against humanity are taking place."
A human rights researcher at Yale University, Liz Brundige