Australia's Green Party says the new security treaty with Indonesia, which is due to be signed on Monday, will suppress people who want to work towards independence for West Papua.
Green's Senator Kerry Nettle says the Australian Government has put their security concerns ahead of any concerns about human rights abuses in Papua.
Under the treaty Jakarta and Canberra have pledged not to support separatist causes in each other's county.
This was a key demand made by Indonesia in the wake of tensions between the two countries generated by Australia's granting of temporary protection visas to 43 asylum seekers from Papua.
Ms Nettle says the Greens are calling on the Government to make human rights central to the treaty.
"If we sign onto a treaty which mean that we can't speak out when human rights abuses occur then we are implicitly supporting those human rights abuses that have in the past and may well occur in the future in Indonesia."
Green Senator Kerry Nettle