The Caledonia Together Party has lodged a motion of no-confidence in the first such move since the 1998 Noumea Accord set up a collegial government for the French territory.
Its leader, Philippe Gomes, says the coalition government has accomplished nothing.
Walter Zweifel reports.
"Mr Gomes has taken the unusual decision against the coalition led by Harold Martin despite having only a small minority of Congress members behind him. He has accused the coalition of failing to respect the system of collegial government by giving his Caledonia Party only parts of sliced up portfolios. Furthermore, he says, no measure has been taken to fight the high cost of living, fiscal reforms have been buried and education issues are at a standstill. Last year, Caledonia Together brought down the administration three times within a month until Paris urgently changed the electoral law to stop the serial resignations by giving any new government an 18-month grace period."