A new report on human rights abuses in Indonesia's provinces of Papua and West Papua says killings, torture and arbitrary arrests by security forces go unpunished.
The International Coalition for Papua, a group of human rights groups, has published the report, which covers events from October 2011 to March 2013.
It says security forces continue to raid villages in retaliation for conflict and to intimidate indigenous communities, resulting in the displacement of people.
A witness of a massacre in the remote district of Tingginambut confirmed 40 people were killed by the military in May.
It was the same month that Indonesia's President received an award in the United States for promoting religious freedom, amid claims by human rights groups that entrenched laws discriminate against religious minorities.
The report says there are no independent mechanisms to hold perpetrators accountable, and illegal activities by the military continue with impunity.