The Asian Human Rights Commission has released a report into human rights abuses against Papuans by the Indonesian military in 1977 and 1978, saying what occurred amounts to genocide.
The Hong Kong-based organisation is calling for an ad hoc human rights court to be set up to hear the allegations and try those responsible.
The organisation conducted field visits, interviewed witnesses and examined historical records over three years to collect the names of more than 4,000 people it believes were killed.
It also claims more than 10,000 people died as a result of torture, disease and hunger.
The report says Papuans in the Central Highlands were victims of napalm bombings and random shooting from the air, sometimes by aircraft supplied to the Indonesian military from Australia and the United States.
It contains details of Papuans being burned or boiled alive, being forced to eat their own waste and perform sexual acts in public.
The report names ten Indonesian senior military leaders as responsible, including former President Suharto as Supreme Commander.