There is a call for better planning to contain election-related problems which bring life to a standstill in parts of Papua New Guinea.
Election-related violence has again affected whole communities in the Highlands, according to Daniel Kumbon, a writer and former journalist based in Wabag.
The capital of Enga province has been the site of brutal fighting between supporters of rival candidates in the recent election, leaving at least 21 people dead in the past month.
A security forces-imposed ceasefire is now in place in Wabag.
Mr Kumbon said the movement and livelihood of the community had been hampered since polling began two months ago.
He said businesses closed, public transport stopped and schooling was suspended as teachers became electoral officers and families were engulfed in the election.
"Everybody's affected, everything comes to a standstill. That's the whole problem," said Mr Kumbon.
"When the elections are prepared, the army and police must be mindful of this. They must plan in a way as to contain these problems, to bring normalcy as soon as elections are over. But that doesn't seem to be the case every election I've seen."
Mr Kumbon suggested a careful, planned approach was required to help Engan and other communities to mitigate the impact of each election cycle.
A large security forces contingent was deployed to Wabag especially for the election period, although as the Enga Provincial Police Commander George Kakas told RNZI this month, it was difficult to contain what had effectively become guerilla warfare with high-powered weapons.
The contingent - including Defence Force troops, mobile police squad units and corrections officers - remains in Wabag, although their presence is less in rural parts. Still, police had been working to remove any roadblocks in the wider district.
"The police commander said they would only leave (Wabag) when everything was in order," said Mr Kumbon.
He said he hoped that the forces would remain in Wabag until school students, particularly those in the senior high school grades 9-12, could resume their studies this week.
However, there are unconfirmed reports that the ceasefire between the tribes involved in the election conflict has broken and that two more people died in fresh fighting on Tuesday.