The differences between southern hemisphere rugby coaches have been revealed in a Canterbury research project.
A sports and physical education doctoral student, Rémy Hassanin, has done the research.
Mr Hassanin set out to establish how coaches in New Zealand, Australia and South Africa succeed, and how they foster players and develop values among them.
He said his study showed New Zealand coaches felt they cared about their players. Specific to New Zealand was the importance placed on rituals and fostering a sense of belonging to a club or team.
The study shows Australian coaches view themselves as man-managers, selling their ideas to the players.
The main characteristic of South African coaches is that they feel they need to be strong leaders, respected but not liked by the players.