Failure to tackle social inequality in Auckland has been highlighted as a key problem following the city's local body amalgamation.
A report on how well the governance structures are working said deep-seated inequalities remain a major challenge, more than five years after eight councils were merged into one.
The report commissioned by the Committee for Auckland said a Social Issues Board recommended by the Royal Commission which drafted the amalgamation, had not eventuated.
Read the full report here
The research from AUT's Policy Observatory says communities are struggling with low incomes, access to housing and public services.
It says the merger of eight councils, in November 2010, has been a major achievement. Debt levels are prudent, but staffing across the council group have risen 8 percent in three years - though population growth may have played a part.
It points to a need for better power-sharing between the council's governing body and the 21 elected local boards, better engagement with communities, and possibly more politicians as the city grows.