Officials in Rajasthan in western India have launched a campaign aimed at shaming people into using toilets.
More than 30 village councils have appointed volunteers to look out for people who urinate or defecate in public places.
If they see anyone, they will shout, blow a whistle or beat a drum to draw attention to them.
Officials told the BBC there's no excuse for the practice because they have provided 9100 rupees ($US166) to people who wish to build toilets.
Correspondents say spitting, urinating and defecating in public are a common sight and in rural areas many people continue to go out in the open even when they have toilets at home because they prefer the outdoors.
Cultural and traditional factors, a lack of education and too few toilets are the prime reasons why millions of Indians do this.