The Refugees International group is critical of the response by the United Nations to the crisis in Mali, west Africa, as ineffectual and woefully insufficient.
In a report, the group said many people made homeless by a rebellion in the north of the country have received no help at all.
The report said these failings should be addressed urgently because planned military intervention by neighbouring countries to end the rebellion could force 400,000 more people to leave their homes.
The elected government of Amadou Toumani Toure was overthrown by a military coup in March 2012.
Since then, regional leaders have persuaded coup leader Captain Amadou Sanogo, to appoint an interim civilian leadership led by a prime minister.
However, the BBC reports the prime minister was arrested this month and a new one was appointed.