The Australian Strategic Policy Institute says a cyber security white paper is urgently needed to help business and the federal government deal with emerging threats.
AAP reports the last major government policy paper on cyber security was published in 2009.
"In a rapidly technologically evolving environment, it's unacceptable for cyber policy to be left without updating for four years," ASPI said in a report released on Monday.
"This must be addressed as a matter of urgency."
ASPI warned Australia risked falling behind on cyber security globally if it does not act soon on developing better policies.