Tokyo will host the 2020 Olympic Games.
In a secret ballot in Buenos Aires, the International Olympic Committee meeting voted on Saturday for the Japanese capital over Istanbul, by 60-36 votes.
Madrid was eliminated in the opening round of voting.
After two years of intense lobbying, the Tokyo delegation jumped to their feet in celebration and waved their national flag when IOC president Jacques Rogge made the announcement. Some were in tears.
Tokyo will be the first Asian city to host the Games twice. Tokyo previously hosted the 1964 Games.
The city was also awarded the event in 1940, but the Games were cancelled because of World War II.
The BBC reports the success of the bid followed a personal address by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe during the presentation stage, in which he allayed fears over the Fukushima nuclear plant 240km from the city by saying:
"It has never done, and will never do any damage to Tokyo."
The plant has been leaking radiation since an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.
Istanbul was bidding for the fifth time and Madrid failed for the third successive time.
The next Summer Olympics will be hosted by Rio de Janeiro in 2016.