Prostitution is legal in France, but brothels, pimping and soliciting in public are not, the BBC reports.
The Government says 90% of France's estimated 20,000 - 40,000 prostitutes are foreign, many of them victims of human trafficking.
Under the bill, those caught paying for sex would face an initial fine of €1,500.
Critics say the measure would drive the sex trade underground.
A similar resolution was voted through the National Assembly at the end of 2011, with the support of both left and right, and failed to proceed only because of lack of parliamentary time. A new vote is scheduled for Wednesday.