Pope Francis has hosted an unprecedented joint prayer meeting at the Vatican with Israeli President Shimon Peres and Palestinian counterpart Mahmoud Abbas.
The Pope on Sunday urged the leaders to show courage to seek peace in the Middle East. He held a ceremony in the Vatican gardens that included Christian, Jewish and Muslim prayers.
Mr Peres said making peace was a "holy mission", while Mr Abbas spoke of a "comprehensive and just peace", the BBC reports.
Pope Francis has said he is not seeking to get directly involved in Middle East peace negotiations, which collapsed in in acrimony in April.
The pontiff had invited the pair on his recent trip to the Holy Land.
The three men were driven together to the Vatican gardens.
"Peacemaking calls for courage, much more so than warfare," Pope Francis said. "It calls for the courage to say yes to meeting and no to conflict. Yes to dialogue and no to violence. Yes to negotiations and no to hostilities ... Instil in our hearts the courage to take concrete steps to achieve peace," he prayed.
The Israeli president said: "It is within our power to bring peace to our children. This is our duty, the holy mission of parents."
"O Lord, bring comprehensive and just peace to our country and region so that our people and the peoples of the Middle East and the whole world would enjoy the fruit of peace, stability and coexistence," Mr Abbas said.
The three men then shook hands and planted an olive tree.