A researcher from Southampton University has discovered a lost concerto by Vivaldi in the National Archives of Scotland in Edinburgh.
The BBC reports the flute concerto will be given a public premiere in January.
Il Gran Mogol has been authenticated as the work of the 18th Century Italian composer.
Southampton University research fellow Andrew Woolley found the piece among the Marquesses of Lothian's family papers at the archives in Edinburgh.
It will receive its modern day premiere at Perth Concert Hall in January.
Other pieces of the quartet - La Francia, La Spagna and L'Inghilterro - remain lost.
Il Gran Mogol is almost complete, missing only a part for the second violin.
Mr Woolley has reconstructed it using the manuscript of another flute concerto by Vivaldi, which is kept in Turin and appears to be a reworking of Il Gran Mogol.
"This piece was previously known only from a mention in the sale catalogue of an 18th Century Dutch bookseller." he said.
"Discovering that it is actually in existence is unexpected and hugely exciting."
The BBC reports it is unclear how the concerto was brought to Scotland, but it is believed to have belonged to Lord Robert Kerr, son of the third Marquess of Lothian.
It is thought he may have acquired it on a Grand Tour of Europe in the early 1700s.
Scottish Culture Minister Fiona Hyslop described the find as remarkable.