Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has blamed officials for security breaches at the airport where a bomber killed 35 people and has called for sackings if negligence is proved.
Militant groups from the North Caucasus region are suspected of planning the attack, the BBC says.
Mr Medvedev said "pure anarchy" reigned at Moscow's main international airport where entrance restrictions were partial at best.
He said an investigation by the prosecutor general would establish whether transport officials were guilty of criminal negligence.
The airport authorities say police are responsible for security in the area where the bomb exploded.