The Marshall Islands chief justice, Charles Henry, has been charged with six counts of cheating related to expenses and leave.
The charges, which were filed by the attorney general, Atbi Riklon, are unprecedented in the high court's 23-year history.
Justice Henry, who is a US citizen, is alleged to have cheated the government out of nearly 15-thousand US dollars in travel expenses and payment to which he was not entitled.
In one instance, he allegedly claimed thousands of dollars to go to a conference in Australia when the organisers paid for all expenses.
The chief justice is also alleged to have been away for 150 days during a period in which he had accrued only 28 days leave.