An advocate for women in Papua New Guinea predicts it could take many years to change people's attitudes over the involvement of women in politics.
Despite high hopes and a record number of candidates in the national elections, it looks unlikely that more than one woman will be elected to the new parliament.
Dame Carol Kidu is on course to retain her South Moresby seat but, as in the previous two elections, she may be the only female member.
Lili Tua, the general secretary of the National Council of Women, says they recognise changing attitudes will be lon g process.
"We need to just keep doing it. It is like we are scratching a strong cement wall that we are trying to make a hole through it and then maybe the hole will be big when our grandchildren or our children's grandchildren will walk through."