Greenpeace says that without good governance, Indonesia's plans to utilise millions more hectares in its Papua region are unlikely to be sustainably managed.
Indonesia's agriculture ministry says that since Sumatra and Kalimantan have become too dense for new palm oil plantations, the only land available is in Papua.
Indonesia, which is the world's largest palm oil producer, has three to four million hectares of land suitable for palm oil plantations in the Papua region.
However Indonesia's already the third largest carbon emitter in the world and Greenpeace Southeast Asia Political Advisor, Arief Wicaksono, says oil palm plantation expansion will only increase the rate.
He says such plans usually mean more deforestation and ongoing hunger for land.
"The government should have stronger and stricter controls on how the plantations not encroaching the forests. If you look back to early 2007, the Agriculture Minister said that to become number one palm oil producer [in the world], we don't have to encroach natural forests."
Arief Wicaksono of Greenpeace